Publications

Sharing expertise

We believe that sharing our expertise is vital for achieving our vision and mission. This is why we publish reports, blog, and do public speaking as much as possible. We also believe in respecting intellectual property, so rigorous citation is core to how we present information and we expect others who use our work to do the same.

At the same time, it is essential that we respect the confidentiality and copyright requirements of our clients, and so only a sample of our work is available on this page. If there’s something you know we’ve researched or produced and it’s not here, please get in touch.

Report: Study on the Support System for SME Supply Chain Due Diligence

Report: Study on the Support System for SME Supply Chain Due Diligence

This publication is the final report of the work Levin Sources and RINA Consulting completed for the European Commission for the project entitled 'Study on the support system for SME supply chain due diligence'.

Green Economy Series: Solar Photovoltaic and Energy Storage in the Electric Grid

Green Economy Series: Solar Photovoltaic and Energy Storage in the Electric Grid

In Part Two of Levin Sources' Green Economy Series, we examine 17 minerals used in solar panels and lithium-ion batteries. By applying risk and governance lenses to our data, we give you an in-depth look at the changing supply chains powering green technology.

Follow The Money: The Philippines - A Rapid Assessment of Gold and Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in The Philippines

Follow The Money: The Philippines - A Rapid Assessment of Gold and Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in The Philippines

Operating as The GIFF Project, Levin Sources and the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized crime produced this case study, identifying financial flows - both licit and illicit - in Filipino artisanal and small-scale gold mining sectors.

Follow The Money: Mongolia - A Rapid Assessment of Gold and Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Mongolia

Follow The Money: Mongolia - A Rapid Assessment of Gold and Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Mongolia

Operating as The GIFF Project, Levin Sources and the Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime​ produced two case studies identifying financial flows - both licit and illicit - in Mongolian and Filipino artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sectors. This paper focuses on Mongolia.

Green Economy Series: Hybrid Electric, Plug-in Hybrid Electric and Battery Electric Vehicles

Green Economy Series: Hybrid Electric, Plug-in Hybrid Electric and Battery Electric Vehicles

In Part One of our three-part series analysing the minerals behind the green economy, we look at the rise of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and the minerals they require.

Government of Ethiopia Ministry of Mines, Petroleum, and Natural Gas (MOMPNG): Salt Technical Training Manual

Government of Ethiopia Ministry of Mines, Petroleum, and Natural Gas (MOMPNG): Salt Technical Training Manual

Levin and Sudca Development Consultants (Sudca) developed this training manual for the JSDF Project and the Government of Ethiopia’s Ministry of Mines, Petroleum, and Natural Gas (MOMPNG). It was financed by the World Bank administered JSDF grant for support to improve the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of artisanal miners, with a particular emphasis on empowerment of women.

Government of Ethiopia Ministry of Mines, Petroleum, and Natural Gas (MOMPNG): Gold Technical Training Manual

Government of Ethiopia Ministry of Mines, Petroleum, and Natural Gas (MOMPNG): Gold Technical Training Manual

Levin Sources and Sudca Development Consultants (Sudca) developed this Gold Technical Training Manual for the JSDF Project and the Government of Ethiopia’s Ministry of Mines, Petroleum, and Natural Gas (MOMPNG). It was financed by the World Bank-administered JSDF grant for support to improve the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of artisanal miners, with a particular emphasis on empowerment of women.

Government of Ethiopia Ministry of Mines, Petroleum, and Natural Gas (MOMPNG): Gemstones Technical Training Manual

Government of Ethiopia Ministry of Mines, Petroleum, and Natural Gas (MOMPNG): Gemstones Technical Training Manual

Levin Sources and Sudca Development Consultants (Sudca) developed this Gemstones Technical Training Manual for the JSDF Project and the Government of Ethiopia’s Ministry of Mines, Petroleum, and Natural Gas (MOMPNG). It was financed by the World Bank-administered JSDF grant for support to improve the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of artisanal miners, with a particular emphasis on empowerment of women.

Follow the Money: Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Sierra Leone

Follow the Money: Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Sierra Leone

Alongside the launch of ‘Follow the Money: A handbook for identifying financial flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining’, we are also releasing our first case study demonstrating application of the handbook’s methodology to analyse the IFFs surrounding the ASGM sector in Sierra Leone, showing its practical application and the importance of financial mapping to a meaningful understanding of ASGM.

The Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) Resilience Pathway: Madagascar Workshop Report

The Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) Resilience Pathway: Madagascar Workshop Report

Since 2015, several dialogue series intended to achieve better governance of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector in Madagascar have been initiated by GIZ’s Program for the Support of the Management of the Environment (PAGE), with funding from the Australian Department for Foreign Affairs and Commerce, and in collaboration with the Ministry of Mines and Petrol.

Sigue el Dinero: Un manual para la identificación de los flujos financieros ilícitos (IFF) vinculados a la Minería de oro artesanal en pequeña escala

Sigue el Dinero: Un manual para la identificación de los flujos financieros ilícitos (IFF) vinculados a la Minería de oro artesanal en pequeña escala

Following international interest for its comprehensive and actionable methods, the GIFF project handbook has been translated into Spanish.El manual del Proyecto GIFF ha sido traducido al español, dado el interés internacional que han atraído sus métodos comprensibles y viables.

Follow the Money: A handbook for identifying financial flows (IFFs) linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM)

Follow the Money: A handbook for identifying financial flows (IFFs) linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM)

The GIFF project partners – Levin Sources and the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organised Crime – are proud to release the culmination of many months of discussion and research: ‘Follow the Money: A handbook for identifying financial flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining’.

Comparative Analysis of ASM Strategies in Four Countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America (Ghana, Tanzania, Peru, and the Philippines)

Comparative Analysis of ASM Strategies in Four Countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America (Ghana, Tanzania, Peru, and the Philippines)

Levin Sources was commissioned to conduct this comparative analysis of ASM strategies of four countries by PROMINES, with financing provided by the World Bank.

Improving Marketing and Sales of Mongolian Jewellery: Scoping Mission Report

Improving Marketing and Sales of Mongolian Jewellery: Scoping Mission Report

In Levin Sources' 2015 report, 'Improving Marketing and Sales of Mongolian Jewellery: Scoping Mission Report', we explore the potential for Mongolia’s gold jewellery sector to serve as an opportunity for socio-economic development.

Comparative Study of Certification and Traceability Systems in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Comparative Study of Certification and Traceability Systems in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

From 2013-2015, Levin Sources provided guidance to PROMINES, the implementing body for the World Bank’s Project to Support the Mining Sector in DRC on building a robust fabric for good governance of its minerals sector through supply chain traceability and certification.

An Analysis of the Commercial Potential of Ethiopia's Coloured Gemstone Industry

An Analysis of the Commercial Potential of Ethiopia's Coloured Gemstone Industry

​This scoping study of Ethiopia’s colored gemstones industry examines the following: the present state of the industry, primarily in commercial and social development terms; which features of the industry and its governance are either improving or limiting its commercial success

Due Diligence for Responsible Sourcing of Precious Stones (PS-MSWG)

Due Diligence for Responsible Sourcing of Precious Stones (PS-MSWG)

Levin Sources and Sustainable and Responsible Solutions were commissioned by the Precious Stones Multi-Stakeholder Working Group (PS-MSWG) to develop a discussion paper on Due Diligence for Responsible Sourcing of Precious Stones.

The GIFF Project: International Dialogue Paris Report

The GIFF Project: International Dialogue Paris Report

On 13 May 2016, the GIFF Project held an International Dialogue on links between artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and illicit financial flows (IFFs).

Assessing and Enhancing the Contribution of Small and Medium-scale Enterprises to Due Diligence for Responsible Mineral Supply Chains

Assessing and Enhancing the Contribution of Small and Medium-scale Enterprises to Due Diligence for Responsible Mineral Supply Chains

This study is an examination of how small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) in the jewellery, medical technology, automotive and electronics industries in Europe, the United States of America and China are managing their “conflict minerals” reporting and/or due diligence requests and/or obligations.

Scoping Study on Possible Activities of the European Partnership for Responsible Minerals (EPRM)

Scoping Study on Possible Activities of the European Partnership for Responsible Minerals (EPRM)

This report examines the activities that the newly formed European Partnership for Responsible Minerals could undertake to help enhance the trade in responsibly-sourced tin, tungsten, tantalum and gold, also known as the 3TGs.

Minerals Supply Chain Due Diligence Audits in the Great Lakes Region

Minerals Supply Chain Due Diligence Audits in the Great Lakes Region

​The German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources commissioned ELL to produce a report for the ICGLR Audit Committee to help it determine opportunities for alignment with other systems over the short and long term and to have the foundations for developing their audit methodology and template.

Evaluation of Mining Revenue Streams and Due Diligence Implementation Costs Along Mineral Supply Chains in Rwanda

Evaluation of Mining Revenue Streams and Due Diligence Implementation Costs Along Mineral Supply Chains in Rwanda

Levin Sources was commissioned by Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) to conduct an evaluation of mining revenue streams and due diligence implementation costs along mineral supply chains in Rwanda.

ASM-PACE Global Solutions Study

ASM-PACE Global Solutions Study

The aim of this report is to summarize the scope and scale of ASM in protected areas and critical ecosystems worldwide, describe its known effects, document and study attempted solutions, and offer an initial set of recommendations.

ICGLR RCM Audit Methodology

ICGLR RCM Audit Methodology

​The German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) commissioned ELL to develop the methodology for the third party exporter audit, that is a fundamental component of the Regional Certification Mechanism (RCM) of the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR).

Property Rights and Artisanal Diamond Development (PRADD): Legal & Fiscal Regimes for Artisanal Diamond Mining

Property Rights and Artisanal Diamond Development (PRADD): Legal & Fiscal Regimes for Artisanal Diamond Mining

​Support for Formalization of ADM in Central African Republic. This Comparative Study assesses how artisanal diamond miners can be incentivised to formalise their activities through reduced costs of licensing, royalties, taxes, and fees.

Greening ICT Supply Chains: Survey on Conflict Minerals Due Diligence Initiatives

Greening ICT Supply Chains: Survey on Conflict Minerals Due Diligence Initiatives

This report provides an overview of the many initiatives that provide the ICT sector with guidance and assurance tools on how to conduct due diligence for conflict minerals entering their supply chains.

ASM-PACE Madagascar Report

ASM-PACE Madagascar Report

​The overall objective of this ASM in Madagascar Strategic Management of Artisanal Rushes Tool and Lessons Learned Study Project is to address the growing threat of Artisanal and Small Scale Mining on, in and around Madagascar’s protected areas (PAs) and critical ecosystems, and ideally in a way that can ensure continued socioeconomic development without undermining ecological resiliency.

Scaling Up Cerification in Artisanal and Small-scale Mining: Innovations for Inclusivity

Scaling Up Cerification in Artisanal and Small-scale Mining: Innovations for Inclusivity

This paper seeks to identify existing and emerging innovations and best practice in sustainability certification that enable fair and beneficial inclusion of producers.

Dealing for Development? A Study of Diamond Marketing and Pricing in Sierra Leone

Dealing for Development? A Study of Diamond Marketing and Pricing in Sierra Leone

​The aim of the Diamond Development Initiative (DDI), and thus of this report, is to enhance human security in artisanal diamond mining areas, contributing to making artisanal mining less conflict prone and more beneficial to the labourers, miners, and communities, and the regions and countries in which they work.

ASM-PACE Sierra Leone Report

ASM-PACE Sierra Leone Report

​This report is a case study containing a situational analysis of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) of gold and diamonds in and around the Malema and Nomo areas of Sierra Leone’s Gola Rainforest National Park (GRNP).

ASM-PACE Itombwe Nature Reserve, DRC Report

ASM-PACE Itombwe Nature Reserve, DRC Report

​ASM-PACE Artisanal and Small-scale Mining in Itombwe Nature Reserve, DRC (French).

Mineral Certification Schemes in the Great Lakes Region

Mineral Certification Schemes in the Great Lakes Region

​The report provides a comparative analysis of three efforts to improve chain of custody assurance in the African Great Lakes Region against the proposed Regional Certification Mechanism (RCM) for the RINR, proposed by Partnership Africa Canada, commissioned by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs.

ASM-PACE Liberia Report

ASM-PACE Liberia Report

​This report details a case study of historical and contemporary artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in and around Sapo National Park (SNP), assesses the ecological, social, and economic impacts of ASM, the key motivations of diggers/miners, the responses of affected stakeholders, including the sustainability of the 2010 SNP eviction and makes recommendations for future action.

ASM-PACE Gabon Report

ASM-PACE Gabon Report

​Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) in Gabon is a long practiced but frequently informal activity that can play a significant role in local development.

Natural Resources and Trade Flows in the GLR - Annexes

Natural Resources and Trade Flows in the GLR - Annexes

​This set of Annexes as part of the Natural Resources and Trade Flows in the Great Lakes Region report. Annex VI presents a rationale and methodology for exploring Artisanal & Small-scale Mining (ASM) in Democratic Republic of the Congo from a sustainable livelihoods perspective.

Natural Resources and Trade Flows in the Great Lakes Region (GLR) - Report

Natural Resources and Trade Flows in the Great Lakes Region (GLR) - Report

​This report highlights the major findings of INICA’s six month survey on natural resource exploitation and trade in the Great Lakes region.

Conformance and Compatibility Analysis: CFS, iTSCi, and the OECD Due Diligence Guidance

Conformance and Compatibility Analysis: CFS, iTSCi, and the OECD Due Diligence Guidance

​This report presents the findings of three different analyses: 1) A conformance analysis of ITRI’s Tin Supply Chain Initiative (iTSCi) against the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (OECD DDG)

Property Rights and Artisanal Diamond Development (PRADD): Feasibility of Direct Marketing of Artisanal Diamonds from Liberia and the Central African Republic to the United States of America

Property Rights and Artisanal Diamond Development (PRADD): Feasibility of Direct Marketing of Artisanal Diamonds from Liberia and the Central African Republic to the United States of America

The purpose of this research was to ascertain the feasibility and desirability of establishing more direct trading relations between artisanal miners in the Central African Republic (CAR) and Liberia and international buyers.

Benchmark of Social and Environmental Standards for Industrial Gold Mining

Benchmark of Social and Environmental Standards for Industrial Gold Mining

The purpose of the benchmark report was to identify an existing standard that could serve as the most effective tool for managing a wide range of environmental and social impacts at industrial precious metals mines.

Consultative Workshop on Land Reclamation and Alternative Land Use: Sierra Leone

Consultative Workshop on Land Reclamation and Alternative Land Use: Sierra Leone

​Tongo Fields is the second largest diamond-producing area in Sierra Leone. Endowed with both alluvial and kimberlite deposits, Tongo Fields became a major hub of artisanal diamond mining during and after the period of conflict from about 1999 to 2002.

Regulating Reality: Reconfiguring Approaches to the Regulation of Trading Artisanally Mined Diamonds

Regulating Reality: Reconfiguring Approaches to the Regulation of Trading Artisanally Mined Diamonds

​This study examines internal and external trade mechanisms in artisanally mined diamonds in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Sierra Leone, with the aim to determine optimal practices for regulating the trading chains and harnessing them for developmental ends.

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